Dasar-dasar TPO



Attractions is the basis in setting up a tour program . tourist attraction is intangible , therefore  it is difficult to qualify the value of the attraction .

02.1.1. Definition

The oxford English Dictionary states : tourist attraction is thing or feature which draws people by appealing to their desired tastes , etc , especially an Clare A. Gunn (Tourism Planning Crahe Russac New York 1979) states : Tourist attractions are he on-location places in regions that not only provide the things for tourists to see and do but also offer the lure to travel , and things that satisfy .

02.1.2. The nature of tourist attraction

A tourist attraction should be maintained completely either is only partly done , may attract one time visitor but not repeat customer .

An attraction could be worth as a tourist attraction if it could attract many peoples and reflect the fact of the following purposes :

–          Leisure

–          Education

–          Meets the taste and expectation

–          Has an ideal capacities to accommodation the visitor.

The preference for the types of attraction is being determined by :

– demography

– educational level

– motivation

Nature of an attraction could be in many forms , such as :

–          Natural beauty /scenic attraction

–          Culture

–          Historic monument

–          Places / things nostalgia

–          Technological exposition

–          Water

–          Flora and fauna

–          The biggest / superior things

–          Education

–          The world of fantasy, etc .

02.1.3. Classification of tourist attraction

Base on types of attraction ( Ballent Kostarlak )

–          Site attraction (Ngarai Si Anok, Monas ,ITB , etc)

–          Event attraction (Beauty contest flower show, sekaten, etc .)

We consider this type of attraction as :

  • Universal
  • National event
  • Local event


Base on types of tourism

–          Touring attraction, must satisfy the touring markets-those who were spending vocation and weekends on tours . This types of attraction could be concentrated in an area or scattered around in different areas.

–          Destination attractions are at or clustered about destination areas .


Touring attraction such as :

–          Roadside scenic areas

–          Outstanding natural areas

–          Camping areas, natural

–          Homes of fiends and relatives

–          Places of festivals

–          Unusual   institution

–          Shrine and Culture places

–          Specially foods

–          Entertainment places

–          Historic building and site

–          Ethnic areas

–          Shopping areas

–          Places of special crafts

–          Parks

–          Secondary attractions (golf courses, theaters)

–          Cities



Destination attractions such as :

–          Resorts

–          Camping areas, natural

–          Organization camp sites

–          Vocation home-developments

–          Gambling centers

–          Homes of friends and relatives

–          Fishing , hunting , beach ,water sports areas

–          Ranches

–          Convention center

–          Sports areas .


Base on types of tourism potential supply

–          Culture attraction / man made attractions / artificial attractions .

–          Exoticism : attraction of discovery seeking out the unusual

–          Customs, tradition, folklore, handicrafts

–          Religion : pilgrimages, religious ceremonies and arts .

–          Archaeology, remains history : sites and monuments

–          Modern culture : architecture ,cultural centers, festivals.


Natural attractions :

–          Landscape : characteristic aspects of the Landscape .

–          Mountains : picturesque highland sites

–          Seas and lakes ; coast, banks, creeks , bays, island and islets, purity or the water.

–          Waterways ; banks ; water-fall

–          Flora and fauna : vegetation, forest, wild animals

–          Climate : chief climatic conditions temperature, wind, rainfall, snowfall, cloud-cover,sun-shine.

02.1.4. Tourist attraction as a component of tour-program

In setting up a tour program, the following factors concerning the tourist attraction, should be taken into consideration :

–          Points of interest of the attractions :

– nucleus/ main

– side

–       facilities, service and its conditions

–      Location : – topography

– distance from starting point

– relation with other tourist attraction

–      Cost

–       accessibility, concerning time, cost and distance


02.1.5. Role of attraction in the tourism functional system


Point of interest list for composing

A tour program

NO. Point of interest

(name and places)

Short Description distance Time to be consuned

For Review and Discussion

1.       Evaluate Borobudur as tourist attraction according to Clare A Gunn definition .

2.       Give an explanation that an attraction could attract many peoples if it has an ideal crrying capacity .

Clarify your answer with a good example !

3.       Find the three criteria of satisfaction which is used as a consideration for a tour program .

What is the correlation between the above satisfaction with a tourist attraction .

4.       Discuss the relationship between demography and the preference for the types of attraction.

5.       Why should accessibility be considered as the importance factor in composing attraction on a tour program. Discuss Prambanan (Yogyakarta as a nucleus) and komodo (Denpasar as a nucleus) concerning the above accessibility factor.



1.       List ten attraction belongs to the from of :

–          Nature beauty

–          Historic Monument

–          Technology exposition

–          The Superior thing

2.       List ten attraction belongs to the group of :

–          Culture – archaeological (site and monument)

–          Nature – inland waterways

–          Culture – Religions- art

–          Nature – climate

3.       Make a point of interest check list of :

–          West Java Province as tourist destination area.

–          Bali Province as tourist destination area.

–          West Sumatra Province as tourist destination area .

02.2.2  Accommodation

Accommodation  is an important component in setting up a tour program it must meet the expectations, wants and need of the tourist.

The following factors concerning the accommodations should be taken into consideration :

–          Types of accommodations

–          Price and its conditions

–          Facilities and service

–          Location :

  • Distance from the gate
  • Relating with tourist attraction
  • Cities
  • Nucleus for tour program



02.3.1. Entertainments

The most satisfying entertainment for tourists is indigenous entertainment, unsophisticated but done extremely well .

The expressions of the culture could  be in the from of :

–          Music

–          Dance

–          Drama

–          Poetry

–          Literature

–          Motion pictures

–          Television

–          Ceremonies

–          Festivals

–          Exhibits

–          Shows

–          Meeting

–          Food and beverage service

In setting up a tour program, the following factors concerning the entertainment , should be taken into consideration  :

–          Facilities , services and its conditions

–          Types of performance , activities , program

–          Price / fee

–          Location : – distance from nucleus of tour

Parking lot

–          Points of interest

02.3.2.  S h o p s

Shopping is an important tourist activity . in setting up a tour program the following factors concerning shopping activity, should be taken into consideration :


–          Products offered : – authenticity

Local  / national



–          Location : distance from nucleus of tour

Tourist attraction

Shop / market / arcade

Tour route

–          Time : activity


–          Price : fixed



For review and Discussion

1.       Modes of transport and its facilities is an important component in setting up a tour program ( if necessary you can take an example for a certain tourist destination).

2.       In a modern movement of transport distance is to be consider as time.

Give your opinion to the above statement. What is implementation of the above principle on setting up a tour program.

3.       Is it a cumpolsary  to establish the accommodation in the location of tourist sports ?

Explain clearly your answer .

4.       Mention the essential factors of accommodation to be considered in setting up a tour program

5.       What are the requirement of entertainments to be sot on a tour program.

6.       What is your opinion about performing shopping program on a tour itinerary ?

And what is the good way if we will set shopping in a program



1.       Evaluate the adequacy of transportation :

n  For setting up a tour program

n  For connecting in and out

If : Yogyakarta to be appointed as nucleus

Bandung to be appointed as nucleus

Denpasar to be appointed as nucleus


Medan to be appointed as nucleus

2.       Analyse the following accommodation when we put as a component of a tour program .

–          Sanur beach hotel, sanur, bali

–          Ambarukmo palace hotel, yogyakarta

–          Istana hotel, bandung

–          Sari panas hotel, cipanas , garut.

3.       Analyse “ saung angklung” as an entertainment point of a tour program

4.       Give five examples of :

–          Music

–          Dance

–          Drana

–          Food and beverage services

Which an perform  as a tourist attaraction .

5.       Analyse the following things as souvenir for a foreign tourist :

–          Batik trusmi

–          Bali wood carving

–          Mungkid stone carving

–          Kota gede siver craft

03.  factors should be taken into consideration for setting up a tour program .

For setting a perfect tour program, the following factors should be taken into consideration :

–          Tourism infrastructure

–          Time and place of the journey

–          The accessibility of tour to the place of accommodation and to the entry / exit gate .

–          Transportation adequacy concerning facilities and service

–          Circle route tour

–          Seeing tourist attraction in a good sequence and relisblo variation

–          Place for viewing and enjoying the natural beauty

–          The weight of tour / the main tourist attraction

–          Saleable and profitable






03.1 tourism infrastructure

Tourism infrastructure is a main component in setting up a tour program. In setting up a tour program it is better to utilize the available infrastructure , only for special cases can be prepared a special tourism infrastructure .

From those infrastructure , the most important is the infrastructure whish concern with transportation mobility, such as :

–          Road / highway

–          Sea way

–          Air way

–          Terminal / harbour / airport, etc

–          Parking lot

–          Etc

03.1.1. r o a d (incl. railway  )

The following consideration of factors should be taken :

–          Class of road

–          Carrying capacity of road

–          Speed available


Class of road

Class Weight carrying capacity Condition
I 7 ton Asphalted
II 5 ton Asphalted
III 3.5 ton Asphalted
III 2.75 ton Not asphalted
IV 2 ton Not asphalted
V 1.5 ton Not asphalted



03.1.2. sea/ Water Way & Air Way

The following consideration of factors should be taken :

–          Facilities & conditions : national


Connecting transportation on with other terminal.

03.1.3. Terminal

The following considerations of factors should be taken :

–          Facilities and conditions : – national


Connecting transportation with other terminal

03.1.4. parking lot

The following considerations of factors should be taken :

–          Carrying capacity

–          The distance from the attraction

–          Other transportation to be used


03.2. time and place of the journey

Time : – the allocations time for the journey concern with :

–          Cost

–          Bereness

–          Exhausted

–          Relaxation

–          The duration of the journey requisties

–          Only for special oases , it is better the duration of tour is held during the day light

It is a reliable condition if the allocation time suites with the duration of the requisities .

A perfect tour program to be composed in accordance with a good management of the allocation / available time

Therefore the way how to distribute time is not an easy menner , it needs skills and experience .

This technique of distribution of time should be supported by the knowledge on :

–          Finding / calculating the time to be consume for the need of on board activity , generally there are three ways to find the necessity time :

1.       By calculating distance with average velocity

2.       By finding the duration of on board activity from time schedule

3.       By assuming the time need



–          Determining the necessity time for enjoying / carrying out the activity on the tourist spot.

This allocation of time depends on :

–          Total duration of the trip

–          Type of tour

–          Weight of tour

–          Variation of tour


–          Defining of time for rest (balance) activity . as usual, before or after doing activity concerns with tourist spot, people do something for the purpose of :


–          Take a break


–          Making leisure


–          Taking a picture


–          Go to the rest room


–          Cleaning


–          Etc













The enclosure chart can be used for controlling the necessiton of time by making a distribution of time





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